Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr. Protologue: Interpr. Herb. amboin.: (). Family: Menispermaceae. Chromosome number: 2n= unknown. Arcangelisia flava (L.) MERR., Int. Rumph.: ≡Tuba flava RUMPH. in Herb. Amb. 5: t. ; ≡Menispermum flavum LINNE, Herb. Amb. (subm. Fermentation by several types of microorganisms was considered as one of several factors causing quality degradation of the palm sap used for production of .
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Arcangelisia lemniscata Miers Becc. Arcangelisia consists of only 2 species. Yellow-fruited moonseed is mainly used medicinally. In Peninsular Malaysia, a decoction of the stem is taken internally for jaundice, worms, indigestion and other intestinal complaints. The smoke from the burning wood is inhaled for troubles of the mucous membrane of the nose and mouth. In the Philippines, yellow-fruited moonseed is a popular antiseptic: Traditional applications include the use of a decoction or infusion of the stem arcanbelisia a stomachic, febrifuge, expectorant, tonic, and emmenagogue or abortivum depending on the quantity administered.
In Indonesia, the stems are sold as “kayu seriawan”, meaning “wood against sprue”. The sap which flows abundantly from cut stems is drunk against fever and sprue.
In Thailand, the stems are used against arcanvelisia, as a tonic and emmenagogue; the flowers are used to treat dysentery. In the Philippines, the Moluccas and New Guinea a yellow dye is extracted from the woody stem. The use of the fruits as a fish poison is questionable. Menispermaceae species are well-known to contain mixtures of bis- benzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids, which are biosynthetically derived from the amino acids phenylalanine or tyrosine. Alkaloids found in A.
The pharmacological effects of berberine have been fairly well investigated. Berberine as the chloride has been found to be active against a number of gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria, such as Diplococcus pneumoniaeEscherichia coliNeisseria gonorrhoeaeSalmonella typhosaShigella dysenteriaeStaphylococcus aureusS. It had about the same antibacterial activity as some sulphonamides; berberine also had an effect in broth supplemented with serum, whereas the sulphonamides were antagonized.
However, it was found possible for the microorganisms to acquire flqva when left in contact with berberine for a long time. In both these organisms berberine at the concentrations mentioned inhibited RNA and protein synthesis almost immediately after addition. Cell-free preparations made from vibrios pretreated with berberine did not produce choleraic symptoms in infant rabbits, suggesting that the toxin was either inactivated or neutralized.
Oral administration of berberine to infant rabbits h before a fflava fatal intra-intestinal dose of choleragenic toxin prevented toxin-induced diarrhoea and consequently prolonged survival when compared with untreated choleragenic animals. The quaternary ammonium group in berberine seems necessary for its antibacterial activity. Derivatives without the quaternary ammonium group, such as tetrahydroberberine, showed only little antibacterial effect. It completely inhibited the growth to trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica at concentrations of 0.
Berberine has also been found to be trypanocidal against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. In vitro activities with IC 50 values of 0. The presence of berberine in granules inside the cells was detected by its fluorescence.
Arcangelisia flava – Wikispecies
The cytotoxic ED 50 values in HeLa cell cultures were 3. Protein and RNA syntheses were most sensitive to berberine. However, berberine failed to inhibit the growth of S ascites tumours in mice, which may be explained by the effect of different glucose levels in biological fluids. The binding of the alkaloid to DNA was investigated by means of spectroscopy.
Calf thymus DNA produced systematic changes in the absorption spectrum of berberine, which suggests that berberine forms a complex with DNA and binds to the extent of one alkaloid molecule per two base pairs. These binding falva seem te be influenced by the presence of charge and the position and type of substituents in the molecule. From other experiments it was also concluded that berberine is a potent activator for macrophages, to induce inhibition of tumour cells in vitro.
Intravenous infusion of berberine sulphate to rats was found to lower the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. A arcangeliaia hypotensive effect was followed by bradycardia.
These effects were also observed in bilaterally vagotomized rats. Berberine chloride at doses of 0. Both berberine and palmatine inhibited specific cholinesterase in rabbit spleen and pseudocholinesterase in normal horse serum. Both compounds were less effective inhibitory agents than neostigmine, but palmatine exhibited lower toxicity than berberine.
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Tetrahydropalmatine and tetrahydroberberine had no anticholinesterase effect, suggesting that the quaternary ammonium group is crucial for the effect of isoquinoline alkaloids on this enzyme. Some metabolic and toxicological data on berberine are available from experiments on rats. The blood level of orally administered [ 3 H]berberine chloride plateaued after h, and maximal levels in the arcangeliwia and muscles were achieved at 12 h.
Urinary berberine excretion reached a maximum at h. Excretion in the urine and faeces at 48 h amounted to respectively 2. Faecal elimination as the main excretion route indicates that berberine is not readily absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract.
The biological half-life of berberine chloride was flaca. Perfusion experiments in dogs and rabbits indicated oxidation of berberine chloride in the liver. Crude aqueous extracts of A.
Arcangelisia flava – Useful Tropical Plants
Bollworms fed with treated cotton bolls were significantly smaller and shorter than their controls. Several Menispermaceaee. Coscinium fenestratum Gaertner Colebr. Coptis teeta Wallich Ranunculaceae is another species containing berberine and with similar uses.
Berberine has been named after the genus Berberis Berberidaceae in which the compound was arccangelisia first.
In India and Vietnam, for example, Berberis spp. A large, woody, glabrous, dioecious liana, up to 20 m long; stem up to 5 cm in diameter, wood yellow, exuding yellow sap when cut. Inflorescence axillary or cauliflorous, paniculate, slender, cm long, lateral branches spicate to subspicate. Flowers unisexual, with minute outer sepals and 6 larger inner sepals, petals absent; male flower subsessile, with a sessile, globose cluster arcangeliisa anthers; female flower with 3 carpels and a number of staminodes.
Fruit a slightly laterally compressed drupe, transversely subovoid, cm in diameter, yellow, with a club-shaped stalk; endocarp woody, covered with a dense mat of radial fibres. Seed broadly ellipsoidal, with ruminate endosperm, cotyledons much folded. The fruits are eaten and dispersed by primates such as macaques, gibbons and orang-utans, and probably other arboreal mammals.
Some confusion exists in the literature between Arcangelisia flava and Anamirta cocculus L. The second Arcangelisia species A. Schumann Diels is apparently endemic to New Guinea and is flqva known. In Sulawesi, it is reported on limestone.
In vitro production of berberine is possible. Callus cultures of A. The production can be increased on media containing coconut milk, casein hydrolysate, tyrosine a berberine precursormanganese sulphate and aluminium sulphate.
The intensity of the yellow colouration of the callus is an indication of flaba amount of alkaloid produced. In Indonesia, the stems are cut in the early morning to obtain the sap which is drunk to cure fever and sprue. In the Philippines, it has been reported that as much as 1 kg of berberine can be obtained from a single plant.
Yellow-fruited moonseed is widespread and seems not to be easily liable to genetic erosion. There are no known germplasm collections or breeding programmes. Future breeding work arcanngelisia focus on the selection of types with high alkaloid content.
Yellow-fruited moonseed is considered an interesting medicinal plant and may become important in cancer control.