1. Campomanesia xanthocarpa species, eudicots. J Med Food. May;14(5) doi: /jmf Epub Apr Antidiarrheal activity of Campomanesia xanthocarpa fruit. Souza-Moreira . This study reports extraction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa fruit using supercritical CO2 and its chemical composition and biological activity analysis.

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Anti-diabetic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg leaf decoction. ABSTRACT The objective of this research campomqnesia to identify the effects of 3-week treatment of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats xajthocarpa a leaf decoction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. STZ caused typical diabetic symptoms: The treatment of diabetic rats using the decoction decreased blood glucose levels, inhibited hepatic glycogen loss, and prevented potential histopathological alterations in the pancreas and kidneys.

No differences were found between the control rats treated with the decoction and the control rats maintained on water only. In conclusion, these results suggest that C.

Antidiarrheal activity of Campomanesia xanthocarpa fruit.

Diabetes mellitus xxnthocarpa a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.

It is associated with an absolute or relative deficiency in the secretion of insulin Diabetes Mellitus 1, DM1 or with insulin resistance Diabetes Mellitus 2, DM2 Savage et al. Besides hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia is involved in the development of the micro and macro vascular complications of diabetes, which are the major causes of morbidity and death Tang et al. Despite the great efforts made to better understand and manage this canpomanesia, serious problems such as retinopathy, nephropathy and lower extremity amputation continue to affect patients, while diabetes-related mortality is rising unabated Tiwari, Rao, The current rise in DM2 and MS is believed to be a result of an increase in the sedentary life styles combined with ready access to energy-rich food sources in genetically susceptible individuals Savage et al.

Xanthocarap of diabetes involves diet control, exercise and the use of hypoglycemic or xanhhocarpa drugs such as insulin, sulphonylureas, biguanides and thiazolinediones Stumvoll et al. However, many oral medicines have a number of serious adverse effects, and the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia with low side effects campommanesia still a challenge for the medical system Revilla-Monsalve et al.

Another problem faced is the cost of the treatment, which is often prohibitively high in developing countries Schoenfelder et al. In Brazil, some plants are popularly used for the management of diabetes Barbosa-Filho et al. Such plants are used in formulations of home-made medicines such as teas, decoctions and tinctures Schoenfelder et al. The main phytochemicals described as useful campomaneeia treating diabetes are terpenoids, vampomanesia, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic substances and lecitines Barbosa-Filho et al.

Recently, Dickel et al. Despite its popular use, there is scant pharmacological information available on this camppmanesia. The chronic treatment of obese rats with the infusion of the leaves of C.

The leaves were kept in a dry and ventilated place, protected from light, and were dried and powdered. Rats and experimental design. Male Wistar rats weighing The rats were housed in an environmentally-controlled room with a 12 h light: All the experimental procedures were carried out in accordance with the guidelines of the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation COBEAand the experimental protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Lutheran University of Brazil and registered under the number A.

At the end of the second week of treatment, the rats were transferred to individual metabolic cages where they were kept for a further week. During this period, the total amount of food and drink ingested were measured daily, as was urine volume. Throughout the experimental period, blood samples were collected weekly from the eyes venous pool under mild ether anesthesia 30 seconds of exposure and collected in Eppendorfs with 0.


After centrifugation, the plasma samples were stored frozen for later biochemical analysis. On the last day of the treatment, after a hour period of fasting, the rats were sacrificed by decapitation after mild ether anesthesia. Blood and organ samples liver, diaphragm, kidney and pancreas were collected.

The blood samples were obtained by means of heart puncture with 0. After centrifugation, the plasma was separated and stored frozen for the subsequent biochemical assays.

Anti-diabetic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg) leaf decoction

The body xanthoczrpa of the rats was also monitored. Plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol were also determined using diagnostic kits: Liver samples used for glycogen determination were collected using the freeze-clamp procedure with aluminum tongs and stored frozen.

The glycogen extraction followed the method of van Handel and the values were determined as glucose equivalents after acid hydrolysis HCl and neutralization Na 2 CO 3according to the method of Geary et al. The difference campomanedia the final and initial weights of the rats is shown in Table I. In the present study, STZ induced typical signs of diabetes including reduced weight gain, polyphagia, polydypsia and polyuria, Cavalli et al.

It is interesting to note that the C. The final ingested dose of C. Only those rats with blood glucose above At the end of the treatment, the diabetic rats that received Ccampomanesia. This finding is in agreement with the description of Biavatti xanthofarpa al. In the control rats treated with C. According to Kesari et al. The levels of serum lipids are usually high in diabetes mellitus, where such elevation represents a risk factor for coronary heart disease Kesari et al.

This abnormally high level of serum lipids is mainly due to the uninhibited action of lipolytic hormones on fat deposits Pushparaj et al. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia may also occur in STZ-treated rats Pushparaj et al. In the present study, only triglycerides displayed a significant increase in STZ treated rats, whereas C. This finding is in line with the description of Biavatti et al. This result suggests that the popular use of C.

The levels of glycogen in the liver at the end of the treatment are shown in Table II. On the other hand, the hepatic glycogen levels of the diabetic rats treated with C. While the peripheral tissues, predominantly skeletal muscle, account for the majority of the postprandial insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, the liver also plays a key role in buffering ingested carbohydrate by suppressing hepatic glucose output and stimulating glucose deposition as liver glycogen.

In the diabetic state, the absence of insulin leads to decreased liver glycogen synthesis which enhances plasma glucose levels. In addition, glucagon levels are high in this condition, stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and resulting in reduced liver glycogen Jhiang, Zhang, Thus, the reduced glycogen levels in diabetic patients can be explained by reduced glycogen synthesis, and also by an increase in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Ferreira et al.

On the other hand, hepatic glycogen of the diabetic rats treated with C. A similar effect was reported by Grover et al. More recently, Oliveira et al. Representative photomicrographs from the HE-stained camlomanesia sections are shown in Figures 2 and 3.

The pancreatic islets from both control groups displayed normal histological features: This finding is in agreement with the description of Tang et al. The cytoplasm of these cells displays green stain, confirming the presence of insulin cakpomanesia, as described by Diani et al. In the untreated diabetic rats Figure 2Dthe islets have shrunk: The same pattern was cwmpomanesia by Tang et al.


The Gomori stain Figure 2E did not display green stain, indicating the absence of insulin granules, in accordance with the description of Diani et al. In the diabetic group treated with the decoction Figure 2F the shape of the islet is not as irregular, and green stains are present, indicating the presence of insulin.

This finding suggests xanyhocarpa the treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with C. However, the crude extract of Pterocarpus marsupiuman Ayurvedic medicinal plant, has been reported to confer protective and restorative effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

These results were reported through histological observations, together with a notable improvement in blood sugar levels. Another medicinal plant reported to have beneficial effects on islet morphology is the bitter melon Momordica charantia Ahmed et xantthocarpa. A recent histological analysis of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with berberine, the main active constituent of Rhizoma coptidisshowed that it was able to alleviate the progression of diabetes Tang et al.

According to these authors, the mechanism of action of berberine remains unclear, but effects may be related to its ability to scavenge free radicals. The liver of the control rats Figure 3A presented typical histological organization, matching the description of Teckman et al.

In control rats treated with C. In both groups of diabetic rats, the hepatocytes were enlarged, with vacuolar cytoplasm and hypertrophic nuclei. The stroma displayed discreet disorganization with enlargement of the space between the hepatocyte plaques, sinusoidal dilatation, and an infiltrative inflammatory process in the periportal region Figure 3B. These results indicate that the treatment with C. Further histopathological and toxicological studies are necessary in order to better evaluate the effects of C.

In both groups of control rats, the kidney presented a typical histological structure. In the kidneys of the untreated diabetic rats Figure 3Cmany pathological alterations were found: These alterations are typical of diabetic nephropathy Thorup et al. The diabetic rats treated with C. Inflammatory processes were absent, but fibrotic scars were found Figure 3F. These findings suggest that treatment with C.

In summary, in the present study, STZ was able to induce typical signs of diabetes, such as weight reduction, polyphagia, polydypsia, polyuria, hyperglycemia, reduced hepatic glycogen levels and nephropathy.

Treatment of the STZ rats with C. Moreover, the decoction of C. The presence of quercetin, myricetin, quercitrin and rutin in the decoct of C. This phytochemical profile suggests that flavonoids probably quercetin may be responsible for the effects of this decoction. The antioxidant quercetin may act on STZ-induced diabetic rats in a number of ways. It may help by improving the secretion of insulin or by increasing the glucose uptake by the tissues Broadhurst et al.

These authors argued that quercetin may act on islet functions, increasing the number of pancreatic islets and stimulating insulin release in STZ-diabetic rats, as well as inducing the hepatic glucokinase enzyme in the liver. According to Vessal et al. In conclusion, these findings suggest a beneficial role of the C.

However, additional pharmacological, toxicological and histopathological studies are necessary to determine the probable mechanisms of action of C. The authors are grateful to Dr.