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Ingeniero de Montes Madrid, Tribunal nombrado por el Magfco. De los derechos y deberes fundamentales.
In Spain, feasibility studies for new roads and motorways are associated to a phase of the decision procedure which corresponds with the one known as the Informative Study, which establishes the physical, environmental, land-use and cultural constraints to be considered in the early stages of defining road corridor layouts.
The most common methodology is to establish different levels of Territorial Carrying Capacity TCC in the study area in order to summarize the territorial variables on thematic maps and facilitate the tracing process of road-corridor layout alternatives. Landscape is a constraint factor that must be considered in road planning and design, and the most sustainable layouts should be sought based on aesthetic and ecological criteria.
However this factor is not often analyzed in Informative Studies and even if it is, baseline studies on landscape quality aesthetic and ecological and landforms do not usually include the recommendations of road tracing guides designed to avoid or reduce impacts on the landscape. The resolution of the landscape maps produced in this type of studies does not comply with the recommended road design scale 1: Another common shortcoming in road planning is that landscape ecological connectivity is not considered during road design in order to avoid affecting wildlife corridors in the landscape.
In the prior road planning stage, this issue could lead to a major barrier effect for fauna dispersal movements and to the fragmentation of their habitat due to the partial or total occupation of habitat patches of biological importance for the fauna or focal habitatsand the interruption of wildlife corridors that concentrate fauna dispersal movements between patches. The main goal of this dissertation is to improve the study of the landscape and prevent negative effects during the road tracing process, and facilitate the preservation of wildlife corridors or green ways and the location of preventive and corrective measures by selecting and quantifying suitability factors to reduce visual and ecological landscape impacts at a local scale.
Specifically the incorporation of quantitative and well-supported values in the decision-making process provides increased transparency in the road corridors and layouts design process. Four specific questions were raised in this research: This doctoral thesis proposes new methodologies that improve the assessment of the visual and ecological landscape character using indicators and GIS models to obtain road layout alternatives with a lower impact on the landscape.
These methodologies were tested on a case study of a heterogeneous landscape with a high density of roe deer Capreolus capreolus L. We explored the variables used in 22 road-corridor planning projects sponsored by the Ministry of Public Works between and These variables were grouped into physical, environmental, paacual and cultural constraints for the purpose of comstruccion the TCC values assigned to each variable in the various studies reviewed.
As a prior stage in a connectivity analysis, a map of resistance to roe deer dispersal movements was created based on the literature and experts judgment.
Using this research as a base, iii each factor selected to build the matrix was assigned a resistance value and weighted and combined with the rest of the factors using the analytic hierarchy process AHP and fuzzy logic operators as multicriteria assessment MCA methods.
A GIS methodology was designed to clearly delimit the physical area of wildlife corridors according to a geometric threshold width value, and the multiple potential connections between each pair of habitat patches in the landscape.
A Digital Surface Model Light Detection and Ranging LiDAR dataset processing and a GIS model was performed to determine landscape quality aesthetic and ecological and landforms with similar characteristics for the road layout, and the cumulative viewshed of potential drivers and observers in the area surrounding the new motorway.
The main contributions of this research to broyons scientific knowledge in the field of environmental impact assessment for road corridors and layouts design are four.
First, the analysis of 22 Informative Studies on road planning revealed that the methods applied by practitioners for assessing the TCC were not brktons standardized due to the lack of uniformity in the cartographic information sources and the TCC valuation methodologies, especially in the analysis of the aesthetic and ecological quality of the landscape. Second, the analysis in this dissertation highlights the importance of multicriteria methods to structure, combine and validate factors that brotosn wildlife dispersal movements in the connectivity analysis.
Thus, alternative corridors with similar probability of use by fauna and without bottlenecks can be obtained by iteratively running GAC and NCE models. Fourth, our case study of new motorway corridors and layouts design innovatively included semi-supervised classification of landforms, filtering of LiDAR point clouds and new 3D road geometry on the Digital Surface Model DSM.
The combined used of LiDAR data processing and geomorphological indices and classifications can help decision-makers assess which road layouts produce lower impacts on the landscape, provide an overall insight into the most commonly applied value judgments, and in conclusion, define which corrective measures should be applied in terms of landscaping, and where. Rosa Arce y el Prof.
Gracias por vuestra confianza y darme la oportunidad de formarme como investigador. Espero que seamos capaces de conservar la amistad durante el resto nuestras vidas, pese a la distancia. Hemos tenido tantas conversaciones y buenos ratos.
A mis amigos de Trento. No puedo dejar de mencionar a mi querido amigo Carlos Zamorano y a su estupenda familia Simona y el piccolo Emilio.
Espero verte pronto en Valdivia. Deparment of Main Roads of Queensland Provincias de Guadalajara y de Madrid. Ministerio de Fomento La estrucyuras de corredor cortado y su importancia define el impacto causado. National Roads Authority of Ireland a Las zonas en conflicto aparecen en azul.
En el caso A, la distancia entre carretera y ferrocarril es de unos 1. Ejemplo de desdoblamiento de calzadas para reducir el movimiento de tierras. Los trazados que minimizan los cortes con el terreno obtienen mejor apariencia visual. The Broyons Highway Agency Ejemplo de recomendaciones de trazado en zonas de valle. Esquema general de un ecoducto.
Ministerio de Medio Ambiente The Highways Agency modificado por Kraemer et al. California Department of Transportation, citado por Valladares et al. Process for road allocation based on the highest carrying capacity of the territory TCC in areas with a lower level of restriction for two constraints i and j.
The figure also shows the places for EIAs, and when public consultations should be held under Spanish legislation. Quality in the definition of TCC of the reviewed reports Also, suitable patches where roe deer could potentially hide during estrycturas large part of the day are highlighted main map.
These patches were selected according to their size and land use composition. In the complementary map is shown the distribution or potential presence of roe deer in Spain according to the Spanish Inventory of Land Species Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, When the layer was transformed to raster, it was possible to ensure that no gaps were left and that the road with the greatest resistance prevailed over the road with less resistance.
In athe fuzzy values refer to distances x from boundary of conditioning element outward. The dotted line represents the selected distance threshold value. Cumulative cost distance raster for a pair of nodes ij CCDRijsee left. Proposed reclassifying methodology by Theobald et alsee pawcual.
Once the centerline of the widest possible sections of the corridor polygon is defined, intersection points between searching area and corridor locate the narrow part. Two GIS methodologies were used to identify potential ecological corridors without bottlenecks considering roe deer behavior and landscape.
Results given here are from the slicing tool, later reclassified as natural break points in the distribution of values in the Coij raster. In this process, sections of paths with bottlenecks are removed.
MANUEL LORO AGUAYO
Only paths or sections of paths without bottlenecks can be recovered. In the case of overlaps, mean and maximum values are shown. The planned infrastructure will link the A-2 and A-1 highways. Flowchart estructuars the urbna framework including landform, landscape quality and visual analysis urbn well as the combination of constraints and final impact evaluation of one defined highway layout. Threshold values were established within a search radius of 30 meters and 12 degrees of slope.
Biomass density raster left obtained by kernel density operation of canopy multipoint dataset search radius 5 meters and the 3D visualization right.
Observation points were located inside the delimited buildings for the consfruccion analysis. Quantitative value of existing habitat patches or nodes and wildlife corridors or links as connectivity providers in wildlife dispersal movements. Connectivity has been measured with the possibility of estruccturas index PC developed by Saura and Pascual-Hortal B Potential wildlife corridor affected by the highway in km section C Example of km section 42 and the local priority for the restoration of each road slope in the area according to the relative value of the IA index D Realistic views of planned wildlife passages in section Scenic potential of highway sections SHS in the case study.
A Example of viewshed calculation from two observation points in lanes in paxcual directions of the highway. B Zoom to section 42 of the SHS map. C Potential landscape quality of the scenic background, excluding nearby highway components cuttings and embankments or carriageway. D Cumulative viewshed CV map or frequency of views by metalica every conwtruccion Balance of dw landscape impacts from the new highway for each one-kilometer section of highway.
Ecological impacts affecting links and nodes according to the importance of the element in maintaining global ecological connectivity and aesthetic impacts defined by height of road slopes, cumulative views from observers located in the new highway surroundings and landscape scenic quality are shown, along with the combination of both. SHS index calculated for each lane direction right and left and search radius in the analysis and 1, m.
SHS index calculated for each section for a different search radius in the analysis and 1, maggregating the analysis of both lanes.
Ability to hide roe deer movements according to vertical structural complexity of the forest stand Scaled values of the eigenvector W have been multiplied by 5 number of matrix columns for each scenario following Equation 8. Financiado por Madrid Calle Road-corridor planning in the EIA procedure in Spain. A review of case studies. Assessing landscape resistance to roe deer dispersal using fuzzy set theory and multicriteria analysis. An innovative graph-theory approach to define wildlife corridors with multiple paths and without bottlenecks.
Autores Loro, Arce, Ortega.
Inmobiliarias en Alicante
GIS based multi-criteria evaluation to identify potential sites for new highway tracing layout according to landscape constraints. Case study in central Spain. Estudios Territoriales, no— Convenio Metalicae del Paisaje. A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numeriske Mathematik, 1 Numeriske Mathematik. Indicators of environmental sustainability in transport. An Interdisciplinary approach to methods.