Sunday, October 7, r. O DnitMAfl M A M. aH viUe f nmslANl. Talbot. 8 A. M. CAPITOL. Cre. A M. ‘LACIXL HLLL. Cottcn. ilB. A. Frost. II M. cm. El Cuento Del SE Nor Jerem IAS Pescador – Libro De Essais de Morale, Contenus En Divers Traites Sur The Electrification of Russia, , Jonathan Coopersmith. When and how to prescribe psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents: une pensée à contenu pragmatique avec un mode d’expression très descriptif. for Children (STAIC) and by the Coopersmith’s Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI).

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This pattern indicates that these 6 areas of self-esteem are partially independent but also share varying amounts of overlap. Two of these scales rated subjects reactions to each delusion or hallucination they experienced.

The PSE is a structured interview that focuses mainly on the psychotic symptoms a subject has experienced during the preceding month 6.

Adult and child forms of the inventory have been developed, and over studies have assessed the reliability and validity of coopesrmith measures. The present study examines whether the content of delusions and hallucinations can be shown to reflect or to defend self-esteem. One scale measured comfortdiscomfort on a 6-point scale ranging from very comfortable to very uncomfortable.

These ratings were correlated with the results of self-esteem inventories completed by the subjects. Alternatively, if the content of coooersmith and hallucinations defends self-esteem, lower self-esteem would produce more favourable, self-enhancing content.

Categories of Delusions and Hallucinations One hundred and fifty-nine delusions were reported by the 40 subjects mean 3. Immediately upon reporting a delusion or hallucination, the subject was asked to complete the scales coopersmoth the comforting or discomforting and the enhancing or diminishing effects of the psychotic experience.


Three scales were designed for use by the raters. Factor analysis of the SRS produced 5 clusters of self-esteem: The number of hallucinations reported by the 40 subjects was 58 mean 1.

Waham Original Research Inggris

Global self-esteem and specific areas of self-esteem are meaningful constructs derived from conscious ds unconscious self-assessments.

Higher self-esteem would not need to be defended against and would likely result in more varied content. For delusions, the mean comfort level was 2.

The content of delusions reflects both global self-esteem and self-regard. Kokenes confirmed the construct validity of the subscales as measuring sources of self-esteem 9, The PSE includes criteria for highly probable and less probable ratings.

The sections assessing delusions and hallucinations were used in this study.

Method Subjects The study took place on 2 inpatient units, one a general adult unit and the other a chronic schizophrenia unit. These clusters represent relatively independent areas of self-esteem.

The SEI measures global self-esteem 7. Procedure Competent subjects who provided informed consent were interviewed within 14 days of admission using the Ckntenu.

The remainder of the scales were designed for the present study. Thus self-esteem is one intrapsychic factor that may be considered likely to influence the content of delusions and hallucinations.

As shown in Table 1, all 6 of the self-esteem measures were highly intercorrelated, particularly global self-esteem and self-regard. The lowest shared variance is for school and work abilities and physical appearance 0. Instruments The following scales were used in the study: Testretest reliability of the SRS is significant beyond the 0.

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Each subject was assigned a number, which was used by the raters when they were completing the ratings. Ve have been found by Miller and others and Romme and others to enhance self-concept and self-esteem 2,3. Schizoaffective disorder, manic episode and major depressive episode with psychotic features were each cu in 5 subjects.

Reliability coefficients for internal stability were 0. Following the structured interview, coopersmitth completed the SEI and SRS, and this ended their participation in the study. Less frequent were thought insertion [9], thought broadcasting [8], somatic delusions [7], delusions of guilt [7], thought withdrawal [7], thought reading [6], religious delusions [4], delusions of jealousy [2], delusions of catastrophe [2], delusions of thought control [1], and sexual delusions [1].

The other measured the enhancingdiminishing effects of each delusion or hallucination, such as the degree to which each made them feel better or worse about themselves. Both were at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, a university-affiliated teaching centre in Toronto, Canada. The most frequent were delusions of ssi [37], persecution [29], grandiose delusions [23], and delusions of control [16].

To investigate the hypothesis that the content of delusions and hallucinations is significantly influenced by subjects global self-esteem and by 5 specific areas of self-esteem.