Cross, Nigel (). Designerly ways of knowing: design discipline versus design science. Design Issues, 17(3) pp. 49– Full text available. Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline versus Design Science. Nigel Cross. This is a revised version of a paper prepared for the Design+Research. Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline Versus. Design Science. Nigel Cross. Design and Science. I would like to begin this paper with a brief review of .

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She wqys an account here of some of the elements of the seminar discussion. In the main, the seminar discussions and arguments centred around the earlier article by Nigel Cross. The article lays out an argument for and challenges our thinking about a neglected third area of education: In general, the two dominant cultures of education are the sciences and the arts, broadly defined.

Cross contrasts between the three cultures science, humanities and design to clarify what he means by design and what is particular about it.

As he put it:. We recognise that the boundaries between these three cultures are not concrete but fluid.

Designerly Ways of Knowing

However, one member of the seminar was sceptical about the idea of design vs. He felt the design process that Cross argues for puts science in a tight corner.


I think what Cross was trying to do is to explain his own perspective knowimg make the case for design by comparing it to science. The essential difference between these two strategies is that while the scientists focused their attention on discovering the rule, the architects were obsessed with achieving the desired result.

In other words they learn about the nature of the problem largely as a result of trying out solutions, whereas the scientists set out specifically to study the problem.

knowkng Thus, for Cross, science relates to a process of a linear analysis to find a solution, while a designerly way of knowing is a process of synthesis and iteration. It unfolds in the future with innovative realisation. The designerly way of knowing is not only embodied in the process of designing but equally the products of design also carry knowledge.

He offers the radical idea of converting public libraries into workshops with laser cutters and 3D printers in place of books. His point is that we now can access books with little difficulty and on different formats but materials and technologies in the context of a workshop are not widely available. Through making, doing, and experimenting people understand and have more appreciation for materiality and could find new solutions for problem that exist in our world.


Materials have there own sensibility different from writing and reading.

Designerly Ways of Knowing

Today we can see how people use technology creatively to solve their own problems and help learning from each other. The creative use of hash tags in twitter, or the rise of virtual communities are just a couple of digital examples. Maybe it is appropriate to end with a quote from Victor Papanek, a philosopher of design, from desginerly book Design for the Real World:.

All that we do, almost all the time, is design, for design is a basic to all human activity. Winchester School of Art offers a research-intensive environment for full- and part-time postgraduate researchers from a range of areas of art, design and global culture.

As he put it: The phenomena of study in each culture is In the science: The values of each culture are: