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Body mass index values for newborns according to gestational age.

Valores de Índice de Masa Corporal en recién nacidos de acuerdo con la edad gestacional

Brock 1M. The combination of twho anthropometric parameters has been more appropriate to assess body composition and proportions in children, with special attention to the Body Mass Index BMIas it relates weight and length.

However the BMI values for the neonatal period have not been determined yet. This study exad the BMI for newborns at different gestational ages represented in a normal smoothed percentile curve.

File:Metodo de Capurro edad gestacional recien – Wikimedia Commons

Retrospective study including 2, appropriate for gestational age newborns following the Alexander et al curve from 29 to 42 weeks of gestational age. Weight and lenght were measured following standard procedures. For the construction aof a normal smoothed percentile curve, the 3 rd5 th10 th25 th50 th75 th90 th and 95 th percentiles were determined and a statistical procedure based on the mathematical model “sinosuoidal fit” was applied to establish a curve that estimates biological growth parameters.

The Body Mass Index values for gestational age in all percentiles shows a steady increase up to 38 weeks, levels off up to the 40 th week, followed by a slight decrease to the 42 nd week in both genders. The results show a direct correlation between gestational age and Body Mass Index for both genders in the nine percentiles, and can provide a useful reference to assess intra-uterine proportional growth.

En un estudio retrospectivo incluyendo 2. The nutritional assessment of the newborn has been a challenging issue and any deviation from the normal is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

They are important for reflecting intrauterine growth and for defining a baseline for infants’ nutritional follow-up. A single standard anthropometric factor, as the measure of simple weight, cannot assess the nutritional status of the newborn properly.

This report aims to present references for the Body Mass Index of the newborn at different gestational ages in both sexes and to construct a normal smoothed percentile curve.

Exclusion criteria were newborns with impaired fetal growth or abnormalities such as hydrops fetalis, congenital malformations, congenital infection or multiple births. To avoid the influence of unhealthy or growth restricted newborns due to unknown causes, the Alexander et al curve 8 was adopted as a pre-classification criteria and weight and length measurements below the 10 th percentile and above the 90 th percentile were also excluded.

The weight and length measurements were obtained using standard pediatric measurement procedures 9. The weight was determined when the baby was born; using a digital scale with an accuracy of 0. The length assessment was performed using a wood length board with a fixed headpiece and a movable footpiece, perpendicular to the surface of the table. One of the pediatricians held the infant’s head and the other held the infant’s feet against the footboard, applying a gentle pressure to extend the infant’s legs so that the heels of the infant touched the footboard firmly.

To establish an accurate gestational age for each infant, the date of the last normal menstrual period was considered first, followed by the gestational age based on the first trimester ultrasonographic measurement and finally confirmed by the postnatal examination method Capurro for term infants and New Ballard for the preterms.


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The infants were grouped according to their gestational age, which was conventionally expressed as completed weeks. The overall sample size was determined by the need to obtain sufficient data for valid calculation of percentile values from 29 to 42 weeks, totaling 2, infants. The BMI was calculated based on the formula: For the construction of the normal smoothed percentile curve, first the real BMI values for each percentile were ordered and the graphic model was analyzed. The distribution obtained fitted the baloard model “sinusoidal fit”, as this mathematical model corresponded to the equation that best represented a biological parameter of growth and at the same time had a higher determination coefficient R 2 in all the calculated percentiles with lower gestaciomal errors.

File:Metodo de Capurro edad gestacional recien nacido.pdf

Through this formula the corresponding prediction values were calculated, smoothing the possible skew of the distribution and determining the final curve. Sex differences for BMI in each gestational age were tested using the Students’ t-test.

Finally, the validity of BMI as a good index of overweight and underweight depends on its degree of independence from length. The dataset included 2, infants, consisting of 1, boys and 1, girls, for gestational ages between 29 and 42 weeks.

Table I and II give the BMI references for each gestational age in the studied percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95 and The 50 th percentile for BMI is 8. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients of BMI with length were very low, ranging from The final Body Mass Index curves for each gestational age in all percentiles show a ballarf increase up to 38 weeks, then a leveling off up to the 40th week, followed by a slight decrease in the 42 nd week figs.

Despite technological advances, anthropometric parameters continue to represent the most practical method of assessing nutritional status and growth in the pediatric years, particularly during the neonatal period. In general, the classification of newborn infants, by plotting their anthropometric parameters as birth weight, length and head circumference on standard growth curves, has provided pediatricians with information regarding the risk of neonatal mortality and metabolic complications such as hypoglycemia and polycythemia.

The anthropometric parameters are important in reflecting intrauterine growth and to define a baseline to follow-up the nutritional progress of the infant. Many authors have proposed that the assessment of body proportions may be more useful than single measurements for age alone for assessing newborn nutrition. Weight adjusted for height provides a measure of the percentage gallard fat for older ages and many weightfor-length indexes have baplard proposed for this purpose. This index testacional a high estimate of body fat mass as it has a positive correlation with skinfold thickness and other gestacioal of estimating the percentage of body fat, for example the bioelectrical impedance and densitometry.

Furthermore, this index takes advantage of the physiologic principle regarding sparing length at the expense of weight during mild to moderate malnutrition. Baloard Body mass index has been intensely used for nutritional assessment in adolescents and adults, and has already been validated for children from 0 to 36 months as a good way to evaluate adiposity and body proportions.

The validity of body mass index as an index of overweight and underweight depends pro its degree of independence from length, 6,7 so at each gestational age group, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient of BMI with length was tested.


The results obtained were very low, ranging from Many previous studies have shown concern about the correlation between birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction, with clinical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including hyperlipidemia, elevated insulin and high blood pressure.

The construction of a BMI curve for newborns at gwstacional gestational ages can be used to track body proportions through life and may complement the nutritional assessment for this period. The presented curves show a steady growth of the BMI values ballar both sexes up to 38 weeks, then level off up to 40 weeks and is followed by a slight decrease in the 42 nd gestational week. This pattern can be explained considering that in eead gestation the fetal growth is constrained by maternal and placental factors.

Previous studies of Guihard-Costa et ballars. For the first time, eead Body Mass Index for newborns in different gestational ages is available.

It might be a useful parameter for newborn classification, helping in ballars detection of intra-uterine growth disturbances and also assisting to validate the nutritional therapy through the time. Endocrine-related causes and consequences ballars intrauterine growth retardation. Ann N Y Acad Sci ; Effects of a very low birth weight newborn on family: Nutr Hosp ; Nutritional assessment in preterm infants with special reference to body composition.

Semin Neonatol ; 6: Ponderal index to describe a term neonatal population. An Gsetacional Barc ; Nutritional assessment and therapeutic interventions for the preterm infant. Clin Perinatol ; Euro-Growth references for body mass index and weight for length. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 31 Supl. Association between birth weight and body mass index at 3 years of age. Pediatr Int ; A United States national reference for fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol ; Anthropometric standardization Reference manual.

A simplified method for diagnosis of gestational age in the newborn infant.

J Pediatr ; New Ballard Score expanded to include extremely premature infants. Intrauterine growth in length and head circumferences as estimated from live births at gestational ages from 26 to 42 weeks. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

Use of serial ultrasound to identify periods of fetal growth restriction in relation to neonatal anthropometry. Am J Hum Biol ; Sexual differences in anthropometric measurements in French newborns. Biol Neonate ; Nutritional assessment of very low birth weight infants: The gestqcional of bioelectrical impedance phase angle for nutritional assessment in children. J Pediatr Surg ; 5: Bioimpedance electrical spectroscopy in the first six months of life: References values for change in body mass index from birth to 18 years of age.

Acta Paediatr ; The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 y.

Am J Clin Nutr ; Endocrine and nutritional regulation of prenatal growth. Body mass index references curves for the UK, Arch Dis Child ; Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: Br J Nutr ; Body mass index variations: Eur J Clin Nutr ; Leone 2 1 Department of Pediatrics.

Introduction The nutritional assessment gestaciohal the newborn ballagd been a challenging issue and any deviation from the normal is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

The equation for the “sinusoidal fit” method is: Results The dataset included 2, infants, consisting of 1, boys and 1, girls, for gestational ages between 29 and 42 weeks. Discussion Despite technological advances, anthropometric parameters continue to represent the most practical method of assessing nutritional status and growth in the pediatric years, particularly during the neonatal period.