psihologia educatiei elena stanculescu pdf converter. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for psihologia educatiei elena stanculescu pdf. SELF-REFLEXIVE EMOTIONS ELENA STĂNCULESCU∗ Abstract In this paper it Universitatea din Bucureşti, Facultatea de Psihologie şi Ştiinţele Educaţiei. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for psihologia educatiei elena stanculescu pdf merge. Will be grateful for any help! Top.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. All self-reflexive emotions positive and negative share the same characteristic: It could be very fruitful for the affective life understanding if the specialists will profoundly explore the cultural and gender differences in experiencing the large register of self-conscious or self-reflexive emotions. They have devoted many researches on how to strength psychological functionality.

Due to the great complexity of the affective life, it has been very difficult for the specialists to find a model who classify and exhaustively explain all human emotions.

The diverse explanation and theories make quite impossible to define emotions in a consensual way. All scientists agree that emotions are a multicomposite psychological construct. Recently, self-reflexive emotions have begun to be explored. In the category of secondary emotions have been included the self-reflexive or self-conscious emotions: Because self-reflexive emotions suppose development of self-conscious, self- representation, and understanding of standards used in social comparison to other people, they appear much later than eduvatiei emotions fear — eight-ten months; anger — four-six months; joy — three months.

Some self-reflexive emotions sanculescu to develop in the second year of life, most of them, including guilt, only emerge in the third year.

If the primary emotions seem to be automatically elicited, the secondary emotions require more cognitive processing in the stimuli appraisal and inter- pretation. Scherer notified that in the literature there is the tendency to include the more complex emotions linked to social values and norms.

psihologia educatiei elena stanculescu pdf converter

stabculescu Those connected to self-esteem self-referential or self-reflexive should be included in the category of tertiary emotions this denomination is more rarely used. The main psychological function of self-reflexive emotions is enhancing attainment of complex social goals, meeting conventional, moral, and competence standards.

Elenaa genesys of self-reflexive emotions have as baseline the dynamic interplay between personal and social aspects? Favourable evaluations increase self-confidence and self- worthiness, while unfavourable feedbacks decrease self-esteem, triggering negative emotions. We can assert that evaluation by others, especially how individual interpret it, represent a precondition for experiencing self-reflexive emotions.

In other words, emotions elicited by the reactions of other people can transform in self-reflexive emotions. It is difficult to manage shame especially when is intense educatii, because it supposes psychological disconfort, hopelessness psiholpgia to psihologiia imagined standpoints of others, and tendency to take a gloomy perspectives psihopogia things.

It is known that shame is related to conflictual state regarding self-esteem psiuologia self-confidence Brillon, Onthogenetically, shame emerges after eighteen months. Stanculecu Erikson described in the identity development theory the stage defined by the conflict between autonomy and shame. When the child becomes conscious about his motion skills, he wants to aquire an autonomy for which is not fully prepared to obtain it.

At the same time, child could realistically evaluate his strength and weakness. If parents are hypercritic and ironic, especially when the child fail to accomplish his purposes, there are not good conditions to create a safe psycho- logical background for the identity development, arising depreciatory self evaluations, and emotions such as shame and guilt.

Another source of shame emergence in childhood is generated educatuei the very high standards or expectations. Specialists name this tendency perfectionism. At the first glance, we may interpret this reaction such as a sign of a great self-determination, but it is necessary to notice that there is a predominance of the negative emotions that could influence more or less the psihologla balance, and that suppose a great absorbtion of energy.


We emphasize again that intensification of emotional negative experiences in childhood could generate an affective structure based on insecurity and shame, related to the poor self-acceptance, self-respect, and sense of self-worthyness.

Parents have to appreciate not only the success, but also the effort to accomplish the diverse tasks in which children are involved. It is suggestive the finding of the Burrhus Skinner who showed more than seven decades ago that aversive stimulation negative conditioning based on punishment have a negative impact on the psychological functionality.

Embarrassment is another self-reflexive emotion. Specialists have been preoccupied to explain if there is a clear distinction between embarrassment and shame. It is assumed in the literature that embarrassment it is a mild form of shame. Breugelmans notice that in Dutch, Spanish, and Indonesian languages is absent the distinction between these two self-reflexive emotions. As we noted earlier, shame is usually triggered by the violation of moral standards, and embarrassment results more often from the violation of conventional or social standards.


June Price Tangney emphasized that phenomenological experience of shame is more similar to guilt than to experience of embarrassment, self-image being profoundly flawed. If shame supposes evitative behaviour, embarrassment generates prompting engagement in remedial or ameliorative behaviours, but is characterized also by feeling of exposure, acute self-awareness, bodily sensations blushing, increased hearth rateand tendency to explain own reaction, invoking external attributions, such as: The presence of an audience real or imagined represents a precondition of embarrassment arising.

Humility represents a negative self-reflexive emotion that shows a flawed status caused by a voluntary harsh behaviour of another person. Thinking beyond of this idea, we can assert that those people who have a strong sense of self-worthyness, being appreciated by the significant others, can manage the challenging situations in which those who they interact, intentionally degrade, ridicule or put down.

This emotion appears onthogenetically after two years old, when the child is able to understand that he is in a dependency state of significant others parentsof their support and love. When the intensity of guilt is disproportionate, it is possible to transform in an overwhelming experience.

The capacity to feel culpability an adequate level to the gravity of the situation that elicit guilt emotion reflects beginning of the affective maturity and ability to realize healthy interpersonal relations. Fontaine noticed that have been mentioned in the literature four theoretical approaches to guilt: All approaches aggreed that guilt is a self-reflexive emotion that appears when someone notices a negative outcome by acts of commission or omission.

The first approach focuses on the specific appraisal of the situation, relating it to the idea that individual is conscious that he has done something that violates his own internalized standards.

There are important differences linked to intraindividual aspects, especially to moral conscious. Not behaviour itself that violates a rule generates the guilty emotion, but attitude on this act. The envied person is perceived as possessing a desired object, feature, advantage, or luck.

Superiority of envied individual is triggered by: Hostile envy is a malicious emotion because reflects an acute sense of inferiority, and hate of social target.

Envy reaction becomes more intense when the disclosed inferiority is a valued psychological aspect by the individual, being considered essential for the own self-esteem. It is quite impossible to accept that an individual can envy a feature that seems to have a scarce importance for himself.


In the individualistic cultures, hostile envy can be elicited more frequently than in the colectivistic culture that focuses on cooperation, but not on competition and acute concerns for reputation and achievements.

Admiration envy is a nonmalicious emotion because it stimulates a healthy emulation in order to become similar to the positive image associated with envied person. Jealousy is accompanied by other emotions such as: Buunk showed that jealousy has a dual structure, defined by the cognitive paranoid thoughts and scenarios about the partner and behavioural aspects spying the partner. In the literature, gender differences in jealousy experience are explained especially from the evolutionary perspective.

Pride is a complex emotion that reflects the social acceptance of individual, not being necessary actual presence of approving others. Ability to experience pride appears relatively late comparing to basic emotions — about three years, because it is required self- awareness. It is emphasized that pride in East Asian cultures is related to a group of people, not to an individual.

From an antropological perspective, this pattern could be explained taking into consideration the cultural meanings and practices of relationships in those cultures. As we have seen before, in Asian culture keeping relational harmony and feeling connected with others are very important. Plenty of empirical researches have provided evidence that grateful people have high level psiholotia psychological well-being Emmons, ; McCullough et al.

Gratitude is one of the most typical response to perceived benevolence from others. People report feeling grateful when they are conscious that either person or God have assisted them in obtaining a favorable result that could have been worse without assistance.

It has been considered that gratitude is also a moral dtanculescu due to the variety of prosocial features and functions. Why some people are more grateful educatieei others?

A lot of factors contribute to this individual difference. It could be very fruitful for the affective life understanding if the specialists will explore the cultural and gender differences in experiencing self-conscious or self-reflexive emotions.


In individualistic culture, emotions are instrumental for the expression of the self and for the affirmation of the individual. It is accepted in the literature Wang, that despite of the prototypes of emotions across cultures, there are differences in the interpretations of certain situations, eena those involving interpersonal conflicts sadness, fear, guilt, and shame. In Western cultures children are stimulated to talk about their own feelings and concerns social sharing of emotionsand in East-Asian cultures mostly in China psihoologia, emotions tend to be perceived as disruptive to inter- personal relations, therefore it is necessary to be strictly controlled.

Other cultural differences in affective register suppose dialectical emotions propensity to experience both positive and negative emotions over time, maintaining a balance between the two. The cultural context shapes the emotional style through a cultural script. The dominant cultural script in East-Asian culture build on dialectical thinking, characterized by a tolerance of contradicions and finding a middle way stimulates experiencing a balance between positive and negative emotions.

Future research may explore how cultural scripts shapes appraisal, interpretations and social rules that govern expression of self-reflexive emotions. Youth stanculesfu Crisis, New York, Norton, A conceptual and empirical topography, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82,p. Pearson Custom Publishing, Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

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