This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.

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Perception, inference, comparison and word ver- bal testimony — these are the means of rijjjlit knowledge. Nyfiya-fcutra by Gotama or Aksapada B. The foregoing argument, some say, is futile be- cause we find modifications less than, equal to, and greater than, the original material. A particular word denotes a particular meaning, e.

The Nyayasutras were influential to the Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy, and provided the epistemological foundations.

Nose, tongue, eye, skin and ear are the souses produced from elements. He recommends Logic Nyfiya as a necessary study for a King and a logician to be an indispensable member of a legal assembly.

This use of ‘ one ‘ would vanish if there were no whole. Our reason is that in respect of letters there is no fixity as to their modification. If a person lias no soul beyond his body he should be freed from sins when the body is destroyed.

The memory of the past proves tlieprevious birth as well as the existence of the soul. In each tangible substance there is only one kind of smell, taste, touch or colour.

If you assert non-perception of the veil though the non-perception is not perceived we, continue the objec- tors, assert the existence of the veil though it is not per- ceived. So you do not deny the existence of presumption. A homogeneous or affirmative example is a familiar instance which is known to possess the property to be established and which implies that this property is in- variably contained in the reason given.

The body which exists at the present moment is not responsible for the sin which was committed at a previous moment inasmuch as the body which committed the sin is now non-existent.


It is, some say, not so because remembrance is lodged in the object remembered. Nyaya- Vrtti by Visvanfitba, It is, we reply, not so because even in the night the ray of thfreye is not perceived. If there is already a knowledge of the man and the post, there cannot be any doubt about them, for knowledge is the vanquisher of doubt.

The Veda cannot be bautama with the fault of contradiction if it enjoins such nyya courses.

Some interpret the aphorism as follows: The text of the Gautama Dharma-sOtra has been printed soveral tiinos in India while an English translation of it by Dr.

Hence the conjunction of soul with mind should be mentioned as a necessary element in the definition of perception.

The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara

According to the objector there is difference between the letter i or i and its modification y as there is difference between the substance cotton and its modification thread. Hence the objector, who is a quibbler, contends that there is fixity at least as to the negative aspect of modifica- tion.

According to the objector the property of the crystal presents itself in the wall. Rumour is an assertion which has come from one to another without any indication of the source from which it first originated, e. Some say that it is not true that whatever has a beginning is non- eternal. The first scholar to try his gautaka on it was the late Dr. Opponent Discutient — If there were no soul, it would not be possible to appre- hend one and the same object through sight and touch.

The Nyayasutra defines error as knowledge, an opinion or a conclusion about something that is different from what it really is. The order of precedence is never uniform. Fautama denial of non-percoption is the same as the acknowledgment of perception, or in other words, the veil is acknowledged to be existent. Thus an object may be known through the non-existence absence of its mark. An injunction is that which exhorts us to adopt a certain course of action [as the means of attaining good], — Truth and conditionally are incompatible terms.


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Cashback will be credited as Amazon Pay balance gautmaa 10 days. Remembrance, according to the objectors, is lodged in the thing gautaja and does not necessarily presuppose a soul.

In the early centuries BCE the Nyaya logicians undertook the project of describing the world in a coherent rational fashion and without reliance on revelation or a commitment to any particular deity. If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Opponent — There is no soul.

Hence sound is durable. The screaming of a peacock which suggests gathering clouds is quite different from a man’s imitation of it, for the latter is not natural.

Nature of argument and nature of the process of valid proof. The fact of his eating in the night has not been expressly slated but is ascertained from this nyqya deration that a person who does not eat during the day cannot be stroug unless he eats in the night.

The contact of a sense with its object is cer- tainly the main cause nyata perception is produced even when gautams is asleep or inattentive. Your conclusion is moreover opposed tQ inference. This is absurd, hence the three kinds of quibble are different from one another. Verses 19—21, postulates Ishvara exists and is the cause, states a consequence of postulate, then presents contrary evidence, and from contradiction concludes that the postulate must be invalid. A heterogeneous or negative example is a familiar instance which is known to be devoid of the pro- perty to be established and which implies that the absence of this property is invariably rejected in the reason given.

But the proof is impossible as a sound is heard at a great distance even after the concussion of gauyama substances lias ceased.