Map of India showing Cauvery Basin, b. Geological map of the Ariyalur Sub- basin showing the distribution of Cretaceous and Tertiary formations (modified after. Cauvery Basin: Geology. Cauvery basin forms a part of the South Indian Shield that preserves an early formed crust (> Ma). In terms of rock types. Biostratigraphy and Evolution of the Cauvery Basin, India. KING, W. and FOOTE, R. B., () On the geological structure of portions of the district of.

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Physiographicallythe basin can be divided into three parts: The delta area is the most fertile tract in the basin. Soil of the Basin. The principal soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils, lateritesalluvial soils, forest soils, and mixed soils.

Red soils occupy large areas in the basin. Alluvial soils are found in the delta areas. The culturable area of the basin is about 58, km 2 which is about three percent of the culturable area of the country. Drainage Area Km 2. Statewise Drainage Area Km 2. Total Drainage Area Km 2. Soil and Land use of Basin.

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The main soil types found in the basin are red and yellow soils. Mixed red and black soils occur in parts of the BolangirSambalpurand Sundargarh districts of Orissa. Laterite soil is found in the lower parts of Orissa. The deltaic soil is found in the coastal plains of the Mahanadi.

Black soil and sandy soil with ” Kankar ” are the main soils found in the part of basin lying in Chhattisgarh. Except in the Chhatisgarh and coastal plains, the basin has an extensive area geloogy forests. Forest and agriculture are the main stay of the people in the interior parts of the basin.


The Chhatisgarh and coastal plains, with a high incidence of rainfall, are predominantly rice growing areas. Geology of the Basin.

The geology of the drainage basin is predominantly formed from Precambrian rocks, principally the DharwarsPeninsular granitic Gneiss, Charnockites and the Closepet Granite. The Dharwar metamorphics mainly comprise of phyllitesslates, schists with chlorite, biotitegarnet, and hornblende.

Accompanying these are greenstones and quartzite. The Closepet Granite of the upper reaches of the Cauvery basin is a pink granite consisting mainly of quartz, plagioclase, microcline, perthiteand subordinate hornblende.

Over the main basin, the peninsular granites and gneisses comprising of biotite granitic gneiss, hornblende granitic gneiss are widely found. The Charnockites are confined to the Nilgiri Range in the central part of the drainage basin. These are represented by gabbros, olivine noritesand pyroxene. Cretaceous sediments crop out in the coastal region and consist of conglomeratic sandstone, coralline limestone, and shale.

About the Cauvery Basin

Cauvery basin experiences tropical climate. Here, the main climatic feature is the monsoon rain. The north-east monsoon provides the greater portion of the annual precipitation.

The far north-western part of the drainage basin has a per-humid climate which passes eastwards into humid, moist sub-humid, basih sub-humid and semi-arid zones. The highest rainfall in the basin is received along the western border of the basin during the southwest monsoon. The eastern side of the basin gets most of the rain during the cauvsry monsoon. Depressions in the Bay of Bengal affect the basin in the monsoon, causing cyclones and widespread heavy rains.


Water Potential of the Basin.

Cauvery Basin: Geology

Major Tributaries with drainage area in sq. The important tributaries joining Cauvery in the Coorg district are the Kakkabethe Kadanur and the Kummahole. Cauvery then enters the Mysore district where important tributaries basiin the river from the left are the Harangithe Hemavathithe Shimsha and the Arkavathi.

The tributaries joining it from the right are the Lakshmanathirthathe Kabbaniand the Survanavathi. Further down, the river enters Tamil Nadu state where the many tributaries, namely, the Bhavanicuavery Noyiland the Amravathi cauvegy it. Krishnaraja sagar dam, NuguMettur and Grand Anicut projects.

Several studies were made by the Central Pollution Control Board to ascertain the status of water quality in the Cauvery River.

The results show that at many places, the quality of water was quite poor compared to what was the desired class. Occasional flood problem in lower reaches and delta areas of Cauvery river. It is bounded on the west by the Western Ghatson the east and south by the Eastern Ghats and on the north by the ridges separating it from the Tungabhadra Krishna and Pennar basins. The total length of the river from source to its outfall into Bay of Bengal is about km.

The Cauvery basin extends over an area of 81, km 2which is nearly The shape of the basin is somewhat rectangular with a maximum length and breadth of km and km, respectively. Climate of Cauvery B asin.