It is known as Kakawin Ramayana, as it is in kakawin meter in Old Javanese language. At the time, Buddhism was dominant in Sumatra, West. Kakawin Ramayan is the old Javanese version of the Indian epic Ramayan, a story of triumph of good over evil. Rakamien means The Glory of Ram is. The Ramayana in the Literature and Visual Arts of Indonesia Andrea Acri, H.M. (evidently) a dominant theme in the Ramayana Kakawin with the occurrence of.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” Ramayana Kakawin Vol. It is a regional research centre for scholars and other specialists concerned with modern Southeast Asia. The Institute’s research interest is focused on the many-faceted problems kakasin development and moderni- zation, and political and social change in Southeast Asia.

The Institute is governed by a twenty-four member Board of Trustees on which are represented the University of Singapore and Nanyang University, appointees from the kakawij, as well as representatives from a broad range of professional ka,awin civic organizations and groups.

A ten-man Executive Committee oversees day-to-day operations; it is chaired by the Director, the Institute’s chief academic and administrative officer. The responsibility for facts and opinions expressed in this publication rests exclusively with the ramyaana and his interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views or the policy of the Institute or its supporters- To The memories of Professor Dr R.

Kern’s text — other mss. Walmiki — dalari — others 24 e- composition: Notes on the translation IV. There is a feeling of relief tinted with serenity. Several months before his death, I visited Professor Dr.

Poerba- tjaraka at the hospital in Jakarta. Rqmayana was in and I wanted to take his leave to go abroad, to Australia. He inquired about my work on the Sutasoma, and I told him I would go on with it. He nodded and added: Yet I did not know what he rreant.

As I write rramayana lines, the news comes to tell me, that at last Bale Pustaka succeeds in publishing the Calon- Arang and Nirarthaprakreta, but to my horror only the translation is published, not the text. Even though the contribution of Pak Poerba is then reduced to the introduction and notes to the translation, I hope my intention is not dimi- nished by it.

Ramayana Kakawin Vol. 1 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

Back in there was a search going on to recover the transla- tion of the Ramayana-Kakawin into Bahasa Indonesia, done by Pak Poerba. Up to now I do not know the outcome. Then I met Professor Lokesh Chandra. He proposed that I do the translation of the RK into English.

I got the vision as if I was asked to scale the Mandara mountain, but I did not know what made me answer ‘yes’, a positive ‘yes’. It might be the thought of the loss of Pak Poerba’s work. Thus, my dear readers, I reveal to you the reason of my decision to dedicate this oakawin to the memory of Pak Poerba, the ardent lover of the RsmHyana Kakawin and the study of Old Javanese language and literature.

The Kakawin Ramayana — an old Javanese rendering of the …

This re-edition of the Ramayana-Kakawin, has its purpose, to place the Study of the Ramayana on a new plane. Not one translation is complete, so that an overall picture of the Old Javanese Rama-story has in fact never been portrayed. Besides, most of the translations are in the Dutch-language, again excluding those students of Rimayana who are not conversant with the language- Experience teaches the present editor and translator, that translations, done bit by bit at a long stretch of period will produce a different result than one which is conducted continuously within a relatively short period.


Translations of episodes or parts found in articles and the like give another different picture. They look like close-up photogra- phic pictures, with clearer details for the prize of composition, relation between the ramayzna etc.

An attempt to compare the translations in existence is found in the notes, but very briefly. More study is needed. Though from time to time references are made to the Bhattikawya and the Ramayana of Walmlki, no attempt is made to compare them with the RK.

The notes once and again also give olimpses of possible further studies in various fields. In the Introduction kaakawin attempt is made to clarify the relation between the RK and other Old Javanese literary products, scantily and superficially remarked in the past. For too long a time, these signposts have been created without any endeavour being undertaken whether they lead to a green pasture land or to a ravine full of venomous dragons.

And while I rest on the top of the Mandara-mountain, glancing back at the beautiful sceneries below, breathing in the nice-scented breeze, I reflect the strains and tensions while climbing up. I recollect the moamngs and grumb- lings which I cried out loud under the distress.

I moaned because the road is so difficult, I grumbled vehemently, sometimes close to cursing, because the people before me had left a false clue or an unfinished map.

Now that all these are over, I hardly can suppress a smile which tends to kaawin into a hearty laugh when I think kakawiin the grumblings and harsh words which will be flung towards me also by people coming after me, following the path winch is still very rough and a map which is far from being perfect.

Ah, well, that is life, whoever sows will reap. I share their feelings now and in this situation, let me pay tribute to all students of Old Javanese language and literature before me for their guide-lines and sign-posts, without which the road would be much more rugged. Turning to a smaller circle of people and institutions much concerned with my work on the Ramayana Kakawin, let me express my heartfelt gratitude to Professor A-H.

Johns, and through him The Australian National University for the opportunity and facilities given to me to proceed with the research.

S- Sandhu and the Institute of Southeast Asian Makawin in Singapore, I forward my thanks for the grant of research fellowship, which gave me the opportunity to work in Singapore, which surroundings and people proved to be much help in the translation of the Ramayana Kakawin- I thank Professor Lokesh Chandra and the International Academy of Indian Culture for his full and undiminishing support from the start to the end of this project and the publication of the end result.

I have enjoyed the warm hospitality and endless interesting discussions with Professor Slametmulyana during my stay in Singapore, for which I express my deepest gratitudes. To all the librarians and libraries and members of staff, too many to be mentioned, I pronounce my great appreciation for ramajana involvement in the enterprise. And last, may I be permitted to thank my wife, Dra Sriwoerjanti, for her part in the compiling of the biblio- graphy and most of all for her patience, forbearance and leniency at times of separation and stress.

Kern need reviewing ramajana overhauling, as they were already out of date. Actions followed, some hail them as positive improvements, some ramayanna them rather sceptically; and others shrug their shoulders in disbelief.

We may recall e. Perhaps this matter is rmayana main reason, why this work is exempted from severe criticism. Those who can get access to it consist only of a selected few, and whoever works on an article or translation or something else, always turns to K’s text, in most cases without any doubt whatsoever concerning the imperfections of the text-edition.

In studying the ramayanz controversies, in many cases I discover that the reason lies kakaawin faulty reading of the parties concerned, as well as faulty reading on the part of the editor. Despite some flaws mentioned above, I choose to use K’s text as the basis of the text-edition, because it is the most and well known text so far.


However, deep down in my heart, it is because of my admiration to the ‘Father’ of the Study of Old Javanese language and literature.

Kakawin Ramayana

Concerning Kern’s merits in the study of linguistics, culture and Old Javanese language and literature, his monumental Verspreide Geschriften can give undeniable evidence, whilst C.

Snouck 1 Sec e. Uhlenbeck and Teeuw, ‘Over de interpretmte etc’, BKf,p. At last there are two items worth mentioning before we go further, namely about the incorrect numbers of stanzas in sargas VIII and XXI, in K’s text-edition.

In sarga VIII, stanza is missing, that is the number of the stanza jumps from to I have the notion however, that K. For one or another reason it seems that his intention never materializes. In sarga XXI, the number of stanza jumps from 92 to In fact stanza no. So in real terms the difference in the number of stanzas in K’s edition and the present one is only one stanza, and that is the missing stanza of sarga VUL Other things, such as the re-arrangement of sarga XXVI.

The description of these rnss. However, the descriptions in the catalogues mentioned are so brief, and there are important discrepancies which are found by reading the rnss. It consists of 6 reels of microfilms of different length. At several places the film is so dark that the letters are hardly visible, e. The Balinese translation is literal and seems to serve as a guide for students of the Old Javanese language.

This is apparent, because the Balinese words, written above or below the Old Javanese text, are aligned with the corresponding Old Javanese words, and marked by dotted lines which in reels 3, 5 and 6 disappear.


Perhaps the copyist considers the student to be already advanced in his knowledge, so that the. Reel 1 consists of palm-leaves, one page has only one line- It contains the text from sarga I.

Reel 2 consists of 88 palm-leaves, containing sarga VI. Reel 3 is marked as cod. It consists of palm-leaves, containing sarga VII.

Reel 4 is marked as cod. This is a complete ms. The Balinese script is beautiful and clear, each kakzwin has 4 lines.

There is no Balinese translation. It is dated Saka. Reel 1 consists of palm-leaves, containing sarga I. This is also a complete ms. The date is Saka. This ms, forms the basis of Juynboll’s Kawi-Balinese glossarium on the Ramayana Kakawin which might explain the existence of the notes on the margins. It consists of 2 volumes, and is written in beautiful and clear Balinese script. Volume 1 is of pages, and volume 2 of pages folio- Each page has an average of 25 lines in volume 1, and 21 lines in volume 2.

There is an interlinear Balinese translation. It dates from Saka. It consists of palm-leaves, but the Ramayana text ends on page There are 4 lines on each page. The colophon is rather long, and is written in Karang- asem in the vear Saka. Each page has an average of 26 lines and there is an interlinear Balinese translation. The colophon is compact and mentions the year Saka. Each page has only 26 lines. Ramagana suspect it as originating from one’s preparation to go to a mabasan meeting.

The other part contains texts derived from the Sumanasantaka, Smaradahana etc. It is written in what is called kadaton-script on folio-size paper, of around pages.